Though the study only focused on one species of chameleon, the results likely apply to many of the others as well, Stuart-Fox said, since other species also change colors during contests.
The findings add to the growing body of knowledge that evolutionary biologists are building to understand the great diversity of signals that exist in the animal kingdom, Ligon said.
Black suggests power, elegance and style, but also intimidation, aloofness and limited emotion.
Color-morphing may sound less intimidating than, say, baring teeth or dragging hooves, but male chameleons rely on such psychedelic intimidation to ward off male rivals, according to a new study.
Intimidate was introduced with the Magic Comprehensive Rules revision for Magic 2010 even though no cards with that keyword were printed in that set.